These standard style taps have straight flutes of a number specified as either standard or optional. Hand taps are for general purpose applications such as production tapping or hand tapping operations. Taper, plug and bottoming styles provide versatility in tough materials, blind and through holes.
SPIRAL POINT TAP
As to general physical dimensions, spiral point taps are identical with the standard hand tap. However, the spiral point tap has the cutting face of the first few threads cut at a predetermined angle relative to the tap’s axis angle to force the evacuation of chips ahead of the cutting action. This feature, plus the excellent shearing action of the flute, make spiral pointed taps ideal for production tapping of through holes. Typically, this type of tap has a shallower flute passage than conventional taps. This gives the spiral point tap more cross-sectional area, which means greater strength, allows higher tapping speeds, and requires less power to drive.
SPIRAL FLUTED TAP
These taps, as the name implies, are made with spiral flutes instead of straight flutes. This spiral fluting feature aids in drawing chips out of a hole, or serves to bridge a gap inside the hole such as a keyway or cross-hole. Commonly available in slow spiral (25-30 degree helix angle) or fast spiral (45-60 degree).
INTERRUPTED THREAD TAP
These taps have an odd number of lands with alternate teeth in the thread helix removed. The removal of every other tooth helps to break the chip and allows a greater supply of lubrication to reach the cutting teeth, reducing the incidence of torn threads. Ideal for tapping non-ferrous metals and low carbon steel; as well as use in titanium and high hardness alloys.
THREAD FORMING TAP (TRU-FLO™ )
These taps are fluteless except as optionally designed with one or more lubrication grooves. The thread form is lobed so there is a finite number of points contacting the work. This tap does not cut, so it is ‘chipless’, and consequently will not cause a chip problem. The tool forms the thread by extrusion, thus thread size can be closely maintained. The fluteless design allows high quality threads, faster tapping speeds, higher production, and generates no chips which simplifies tapping of blind bottoming holes (threads can be formed the full depth of the hole).
These taps are for producing standard straight or tapered pipe threads in a wide range of pipe connections. Manufactured with the appropriate design variations to cut specified pipe thread forms.
COMBINED DRILL and TAP (COST CUTTER™)
This high production tool is specially designed to drill and tap in one pass only. By design, this value-added tool reduces machining operations and subsequent parts handling. The drill end features a split point, and the tool shank and square fit standard tap holders.
ACME THREAD TAP
Acme screw threads were devised to allow rotary and transversing motion on machines; and are also used in jacks, valves, presses and other mechanisms where heavy loads are encountered. The acme thread is characterized by a 29° included angle. Acme taps typically require specialized engineering and design due to the nature and severity of cut required in producing Acme threads.
TANDEM ACME TAP
These taps combine the initial roughing cut with the final finishing cut, in one pass, to achieve an acme screw thread. These taps are economical and enhance production levels by saving on the operation of two tools. Since acme thread pitches are generally coarse relative to diameters, these taps are subjected to heavy chip loads. To achieve a high quality acme thread in a cost-effective manner, roughing and finishing operations are recommended.
Extension Tap - These taps are made to conventional tap dimensions, except that they have an extended shank in order to tap hard to reach holes. Thread length, shank diameter, and shank square are made to standard specifications listed in Table 302. Extension taps are available in both hand and spiral point styles, and in small shank style.
The hub portion of pulley parts contain oil cups and set screw holes, most of which cannot be reached with ordinary hand taps. Pulley taps have the same basic thread dimensions as hand taps, but pulley taps differ in that they have a longer shank which is of the same basic major diameter as the threaded portion. When tapping pulley hub holes, the taps are inserted through holes in the rims which are slightly larger than the shanks of the taps. These holes serve as guides or bushings for the taps to assure proper alignment when tapping. Pulley taps can also be used for general tapping in parts where an extra long length is required to reach the holes being tapped.
Nut taps feature a long chamfer which assists in entering the drilled hole, and distributes the cutting action over several teeth. These taps were initially designed for tapping nuts and have a long thread length. The shank diameter is smaller than the tap’s minor diameter to allow the accumulation of several nuts after tapping. Nut taps also feature an extended square length.
Minimum clearance between two mating parts; the prescribed variations from the basic size.
ANGLE OF THREAD
The angle included between the sides of the thread measured in an axial plane.
The imaginary straight line that forms the longitudinal centerline of the tool or threaded part.
A gradual decrease in the diameter of the thread form on a tap from the chamfered end of the land towards the back which creates a slight radial relief in the threads.
BASE OF THREAD
The bottom section of the thread; the greatest section between the two adjacent roots.
The theoretical or nominal standard size from which all variations are derived by application of allowances and tolerances.
The tapering of the threads at the front end of each land of a tap by cutting away and relieving the crest of the first few teeth to distribute the cutting action over several teeth; Taper taps are chamfered 7-10 threads; plug taps are chamfered 3-5 threads; bottoming taps are chamfered 1-2 threads; taper pipe taps are chamfered 2-3.5 threads.
The gradual decrease in land height from cutting edge to heel on the chamfered portion, to provide clearance for the cutting action as the tap advances.
The top surface joining the two sides or flanks of the thread; the crest of an external thread is at its major diameter, while the crest of an internal thread is at its minor diameter.
The leading side of the land in the direction of cutting rotation on which the chip forms.
The longitudinal channels formed in a tap to create cutting edges on the thread profile, and to provide chip spaces and cutting fluid passages.
The edge of the land opposite the cutting edge.
HEIGHT OF THREAD
The distance, measured radially, between the crest and the base of a thread.
The angle made by the advance of the thread as it wraps around an imaginary cylinder.
The undercut on the face of the teeth.
The inclination of a concave cutting face, usually specified either as Chordal Hook or Tangential Hook. Chordal Hook Angle: The angle between the chord passing through the root and crest of a thread form at the cutting face, and a radial line through the crest at the cutting edge. Tangential Hook Angle: The angle between a line tangent to a hook cutting face at the cutting edge and a radial line to the same point.
INTERRUPTED THREAD TAP
A tap having an odd number of lands with alternate teeth along the thread helix removed. In some cases alternate teeth are removed only for a portion of the thread length.
The part of the tap body which remains after the flutes are cut, and on which the threads are finally ground. The threaded section between the flutes of a tap.
The axial distance a tap will advance along its axis in one complete turn. On a single start, the lead and the pitch are identical; on a double start, the lead is twice the pitch.
Commonly known as the 'outside diameter.' It is the largest diameter of the thread.
Commonly known as the “root diameter.” It is the smallest diameter of the thread.
PERCENT OF THREAD
One-half the difference between the basic major diameter and the actual minor diameter of an internal thread, divided by the basic thread height, expressed as a percentage.
The distance from any point on a screw thread to a corresponding point on the next thread, measured parallel to the axis and on the same side of the axis. The pitch equals one divided by the number of threads per inch.
On a straight thread, the pitch diameter is the diameter of the imaginary co-axial cylinder...the surface of which would pass through the thread profiles at such points as to make the width of the groove equal to one-half of the basic pitch. On a perfect thread this occurs at the point where the widths of the thread and groove are equal. On a taper thread, the pitch diameter at a given position on the thread axis is the diameter of the pitch cone at that position.
The angular relationship of the straight cutting face of a tooth with respect to a radial line through the crest of the tooth at the cutting edge. Positive rake means that the crest of the cutting face is angularly ahead of the balance of the cutting face of the tooth. Negative rake means that the crest of the cutting face is angularly behind the balance of the cutting face of the tooth. Zero rake means that the cutting face is directly on a radial line.
RELIEF (or Thread Relief)
The removal of metal from behind the cutting edge to provide clearance and reduce friction between the part being threaded and the threaded land.
The bottom surface joining the sides of two adjacent threads, and is identical with or immediately adjacent to the cylinder or cone from which the thread projects.
A flute with uniform axial lead in a spiral path around the axis of a tap.
The angular fluting in the cutting face of the land at the chamfered end; formed at an angle with respect to the tap axis of opposite hand to that of rotation. Its length is usually greater than the chamfer length and its angle with respect to the tap axis is usually made great enough to direct the chips ahead of the taps cutting action.
A flute that forms a cutting edge lying in an axial plane.
In producing a tap to given specifications, tolerance is: (a.) the total permissible variation of a size; (b.) the difference between the limits of size.